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コロナウイルスの影響、港を直撃

投稿日: 2020 3月 16、1:24 午前



コロナウイルスインパクト・ 港を直撃!
ロサンゼルス港、ロングビーチ港 コンテナ激減に危機感


  発生地である中国だけでなく、日本、韓国、台湾など多くの国で感染が確認されつつある「コロナウイルス」。感染拡大の防止に向け、各国が対応を強化している。中でも、発生国とも言われる中国では、従来の旧正月以降、都市ので移動制限、工場の封鎖などを通じて、感染拡大に取り組む様子が先日報道されている。感染者や亡くなった方の数に目が奪われがちであるが、足元では大きな危機が迫っている。中国に寄港する多くの外航船社が欠便、減便を実施。結果、サプライチェーンに支障が出始めている。

 従来でも旧正月明けは工場の稼働が始まる時期で貨物量がすくないため、減便をすることはあった。

 しかし、今年は、旧正月に加えて休暇期間の延長や工場の稼働時期の延期、従業員の確保の困難などの問題もあり、工場の生産ラインの稼働や製品出荷が大幅にずれ込むことが予想される。 出荷製品が無いところに船を寄せることの経済的負担の大きさから、各船社が2月、3月の欠便、減便を発表。特に中国からの取扱の多い、オーシャン・アライアンス(CMA-CGM、EVERGREEN、COSCO、OOCL、APL)は配船の約6割近くを欠便にすると見られる。同アライアンスの発表によると2月から4月上旬までの2ヶ月の間に同アライアンスの中国寄港のサービスのうち、60数隻が欠便するという。

 また、日本に寄港するONE(オーシャン・ネット・エキスプレス)も、同じ期間で、10数隻の欠便を発表。対象は中国寄港のサービスに限るとはいえ、日本積みの貨物にも影響がでている。

 ロサンゼルス港湾局のジーン・セロカ港湾代表は、2月中旬から3月末までで欠便になったコンテナ船はロサンゼルス寄港サービスだけでも40隻を越えており、港湾の運営に甚大な損害を与えているとコメントしている。同港の2月のコンテナ取扱数量は前年比で22・9%減少している。

 コンテナ船の入港予定が少ないことから各ターミナルがゲートの開閉を制限しており、
ユーセン・ターミナルは火曜日と水曜日のみフルゲートオープンとして、他の曜日は半日オープンや完全クローズで対応している。また平日は2シフトのうち、前半、もしくは後半だけゲートをオープンにしたり、コンテナの荷降ろしを行うターミナルもある。

 それは同時に港湾のオペレーションを司る荷役労働者の勤務時間にも影響してくる。
高給で知られる港湾労働者であるが、基本は時間給であるため、勤務時間の激減は手取り給与の減少に繋がる。


サプライ・チェーンに打撃
 輸入の船が少ないため、ターミナルには輸入のコンテナはあまり滞留をしている様子はないが、ターミナルの各所には高く積まれたコンテナが多く見受けられる。それは、内陸力港に戻され、アジアに戻される空のコンテナである。船が来ないため、返却のための戻り便が限られていて、こちらは滞留が増える一方である。

 また、コンテナを米国内に配送するトラック会社も輸入コンテナの激減により運賃の値崩れが始まっている。

  同時に貨物の未着や遅延により中国から製品、資材を輸入している米国のインポーターやサプライヤーは在庫の確保、サプライ・チェーンの調整を余儀なくされる。特に中国からのコンテナが6割を超えるロサンゼルス、ロングビーチ港への衝撃は大きく。港の関係者や物流関係者には危機感がただよう。生産ラインの確保に奔走するメーカーも多い。

 両港はトランプ政策の一環である中国製品への追加関税での貨物の減少でも影響を受けており、この一連の船社の動きは更に大きな打撃を与えている。

影響はクルーズや自動車船にも

 「ダイヤモンド・プリンセス」や「グランド・プリンセス」などの豪華客船でも感染が確認されたことからクルーズ全般への敬遠が広がっている。ロサンゼルス港では、3月だけで22隻のクルーズが予定されているが、感染を懸念する乗客のキャンセルも相次いでおり、決行が危ぶまれている。

 ロサンゼルス港には日産自動車やドイツのダイムラーベンツの完成車が自動車専用船で運ばれてきて、同港から全米に配送される。日産自動車の多くは福岡の苅田にある九州工場で生産され、そこからロサンゼルスに輸送されている。今回、中国の部品メーカーからの部品の調達が滞っていることで日産九州工場が2月、3月に数日の生産中止を実施し、生産調整を行った。

 コロナウイルス感染拡大の懸念から米国の株価も大きく下落。先行き不安から自動車の買え控えも予想される。そうなれば、2008年のリーマンショック後のように港周辺に完成車が長期で放置されることも想定される。

港のクライスはまだはじまったばかりだ。





カテゴリー: コロナウイルス関連

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